Invitatie la Septuaginta



The  use of the LXX in  the  Gospels  and Acts  raises  the  interesting question  of  whether  Jesus  and  the  early  church  leaders   themselves used the Greek  Bible.  This is a complicated  issue  that  has occupied the attention  of many  scholars.
Richard  N.  Longenecker  observes  that  in  the  Gospels,  when  Jesus quotes  Scripture,  the quotation  most  often  follows  the LXX reading, al­though  it is not certain  that  Jesus  himself  taught  in  Greek.  Even  if he did  teach in Greek  at times,  he probably  more  often  spoke  in his native tongue,  Aramaic.  Longenecker  points  out  that  even  in  the  Gospel  of Matthew, where the evangelist s own quotations of the  OT usually  follow the Hebrew  reading, the citations by Jesus  „are  strongly  Septuagintal.” (20)

20.  See  Richard  N.  Longenecker,   Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period,    2d   ed. (Grand  Rapids:  Eerdmans,  1999), 48.

Silva M. Invitation to the Septuagint(2000)

Of greater interest in reviewing the form of the quotations attributed to Jesus in the Gospels is that the great majority are Septuagintal in character. In most cases, of course, this is of no importance, for the Greek of the LXX is a fair translation of the Hebrew and Jesus could have made his point from either. In a few cases, however, it is the LXX reading, as against the reading of the MT or any known Targum, that provides Jesus with both the wording and the application he makes.

The Septuagintal character of Jesus’ biblical quotations, of course, poses a problem, which James Barr highlights in saying:

One of the peculiarities of Christianity is that the words of Jesus have not been preserved in the language in which they were originally spoken. Even from the earliest days there was no great effort—perhaps there was no effort at all—to ensure that his sayings should be kept alive in the original tongue. The tradition of his teaching was carefully cultivated and was set forth in the various versions of the different Gospels, but it was a tradition in translation.26
Why, if Jesus spoke and taught in Aramaic, is it that not only are his words recorded in Greek but his biblical quotations are based on the LXX, and not on a Hebrew or Aramaic version?
It will not do to say, as is commonly asserted, that Jesus’ LXX quotations indicate that they are simply part and parcel of the early Church’s Gemeindetheologie, and therefore probably not dominical. This may be argued for the Fourth Gospel, where the difference in form between the evangelist’s own citations and those included in his narrative is not that distinct. Or it may be claimed in the cases of Mark and Luke, who record the use of the Old Testament by Jesus and others but do not themselves frequently quote Scripture in their editorial comments. But it will hardly serve as an explanation for the biblical citations of Matthew’s Gospel, where the evangelist’s own eleven fulfillment formula quotations, though mixed in text form, are dominantly Semitic in character,27 whereas those of Jesus, though also mixed in form (though to a more limited extent), are strongly Septuagintal.
26 J. Barr, “Which Language Did Jesus Speak?—Some Remarks of a Semitist,” BJRL 53 (1970) 9.
LXX Septuagint (A = Alexandrinus; B = Vaticanus)
27 See pp. 120–21 below.
Longenecker, R. N. (1999). Biblical exegesis in the apostolic period (2nd ed.) (47). Grand Rapids, Mich.; Vancouver: W.B. Eerdmans; Regent College Pub.

Scenă din Spovedaniile unui pelerin rus:

Pelerinul ajunge la cocioaba în care locuieşte o pereche sărăcită: le-a ars casa, el şi-a pierdut un braţ, viaţa pentru ei nu mai e decât o ruină.

Soţii citesc Evanghelia Sfântului Ioan şi ea izbucneşte în plâns. Bărbatul îi înţelege amarul şi o consolează spunându-i că nenorocirile îi justifică pe deplin lacrimile.

Ea însă: Nu plâng din pricina nenorocirilor noastre, ci de bucurie, bucuria de a citi Evanghelia aceasta.

Desigur, desigur: nebunie curată. Contabilii şi raţionaliştii să-şi vadă de drum. Oamenii raţionali — care nu-s raţionalişti — pot însă încerca.

din “Jurnalul fericirii” de Nicolae Steinhardt


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