Sabatul – Dumnezeu stapaneste peste timp si spatii

Nevertheless, there cannot be any doubt that the text provides the unspoken foundation for the future institution of the Sabbath. Not only is the vocabulary of the present passage interwoven with other Pentateuchal references to the Sabbath,1 but the connection with Creation is made explicit in the first version of the Ten Commandments, given in Exodus 20:8–11. “Remember the sabbath day and keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is a sabbath of the Lord your God.… For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth and sea, and all that is in them, and He rested on the seventh day … and hallowed it.” The biblical institution of the weekly Sabbath is unparalleled in the ancient world. In fact, the concept of a seven-day week is unique to Israel, as is also, so far, the seven-day cosmogonic tradition. Both these phenomena are extraordinary in light of the widespread use of a seven-day unit of time, both as a literary convention and as an aspect of cultic observance in the ancient Near East. The wonderment is compounded by additional data. The other major units of time—day, month, and year—are uniformly based on the phases of the moon and the movement of the sun, and the calendars of the ancient world are rooted in the seasonal manifestations of nature. Remarkably, the Israelite week has no such linkage and is entirely independent of the movement of celestial bodies. The Sabbath thus underlines the fundamental idea of Israelite monotheism: that God is wholly outside of nature.

1 Exod. 16:5, 22, 26; 23:12; 31:13–17; 34:21; 35:2; Lev. 23:3 all bear traces of the vocabulary of our passage.
(…) 3. God blessed … declared it holy Unlike the blessings of verses 22 and 28, which are verbal, specific, material, and relate to living creatures, this blessing is undefined and pertains to time itself. The day becomes imbued with an extraordinary vital power that communicates itself in a beneficial way. That is why the routine day-formula is here omitted. God, through His creativity, has already established His sovereignty over space; the idea here is that He is sovereign over time as well. Through his weekly suspension of normal human activity, man imitates the divine pattern and reactualizes the original sacred time of God, thereby recovering the sacred dimension of existence. Paradoxically, he also thereby rediscovers his own very human dimension, his earthliness, for the Sabbath delimits man’s autonomy, suspends for a while his creative freedom, and declares that on that one day each week nature is inviolable.

Sarna, N. M. (1989). Genesis. English and Hebrew; commentary in English.; Title on half t.p.: Genesis = Be-reshit. The JPS Torah commentary (14,15). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

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