Bach – Christmas Oratorio, BWV 248

The Christmas Oratorio (German: Weihnachtsoratorium) BWV 248, is an oratorio by Johann Sebastian Bach intended for performance in church during the Christmas season. It was written for the Christmas season of 1734 incorporating music from earlier compositions, including three secular cantatas written during 1733 and 1734 and a now lost church cantata, BWV 248a. The date is confirmed in Bach’s autograph manuscript. The next performance was not until 17 December 1857 by the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin under Eduard Grell. The Christmas Oratorio is a particularly sophisticated example of parody music. The author of the text is unknown, although a likely collaborator was Christian Friedrich Henrici (Picander).

The work belongs to a group of three oratorios written towards the end of Bach’s career in 1734 and 1735 for major feasts, the others being the Ascension Oratorio (BWV 11) and the Easter Oratorio (BWV 249). All include a tenor Evangelist as narrator and parody earlier compositions, although the Christmas Oratorio is by far the longest and most complex work.

The oratorio is in six parts, each part being intended for performance on one of the major feast days of the Christmas period. The piece is often presented as a whole or split into two equal parts. The total running time for the entire work is nearly three hours.

The first part (for Christmas Day) describes the Birth of Jesus, the second (for December 26) the annunciation to the shepherds, the third (for December 27) the adoration of the shepherds, the fourth (for New Year’s Day) the circumcision and naming of Jesus, the fifth (for the first Sunday after New Year) the journey of the Magi, and the sixth (for Epiphany) the adoration of the Magi.

Narrative structure
The structure of the story is defined to a large extent by the particular requirements of the church calendar for Christmas 1734/35. Bach abandoned his usual practice when writing church cantatas of basing the content upon the Gospel reading for that day in order to achieve a coherent narrative structure. Were he to have followed the calendar, the story would have unfolded as follows: 1. Birth and Annunciation to the Shepherds
2. The Adoration of the Shepherds
3. Prologue to the Gospel of John
4. Circumcision and Naming of Jesus
5. The Flight into Egypt
6. The Coming and Adoration of the Magi

Parts
0:00 – Part I: For the First Day of Christmas
27:33 – Part II: For the Second Day of Christmas
55:54 – Part III: For the Third Day of Christmas
1:19:46 – Part IV: For New Year’s Day (Feast of the Circumcision)
1:44:33 – Part V: For the First Sunday in the New Year
2:08:42 – Part VI: For the Feast of Epiphany

[Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christmas_Oratorio]

În iesle stă, şi zguduie lumea!

„Dar  ce  să  spun,  ce  să  grăiesc?  Văd  pe  teslar  şi  ieslea,  văd  pe prunc  şi  scutecele,  văd  naşterea  Fecioarei  lipsită  de  cele  de  trebuintă. Toate  încărcate  de  sărăcie,  toate  pline  de  lipsă.  Iată,  bogătie  în  mare sărăcie! Cum a sărăcit pentru noi, când era bogat? Cum n-a avut nici pat, nici  aşternut,  ci  a  fost  aruncat  în  ieslea  goală?  O,  sărăcie,  izvor  de bogătie!  O  bogătie  nemăsurată,  ce  ai  chip  de  sărăcie!  În  iesle  stă,  şi zguduie lumea! În scutece se înfăşoară, şi va sfărâma legăturile păcatului. Încă  n-a  rostit  cuvânt  desluşit,  şi  a  şi-nvătat  pe  magi,  i-a  şi-ntors  la credintă.”

(Ioan Gura de Aur – Cuvânt  la Naşterea Mântuitorului nostru Iisus Hristos, în vol. Predici la sărbători împărăteşti şi cuvântări de laudă la sfinti, p. 31)

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