Sabat si duminica in antichitatea crestina

Before Sunday there was the Sabbath. The very first Jewish Christians, and many more at least for some years, would have observed the Sabbath, presumably with a festive meal on the Friday evening, when the Sabbath began according to Jewish reckoning. 2 Jesus’ own attitude toward the Sabbath comes to play a part in later arguments about its observance. The Gospel controversies over the Sabbath (Mark 2:23–3:6 and parallels) reflect debate over its meaning, not any implied rejection by Jesus; yet by the time these stories were written, they may well have become fuel for the fire of more radical debates, and for gentile Christians’ justification of a different approach.

[…] The idea that Sunday is a “Christian Sabbath” grows along with anti-Jewish polemic, but it does not explain the origin of Sunday or offer much help determining exactly how Sunday was kept. The emerging Christian pursuit of Sunday as an “anti-Sabbath” has curious implications, even to advocacy of ostentatious busy-ness on Saturday so as to avoid any accidental appearance of observing the Jewish day of rest. However, closer to 200, Tertullian still knows of some Christians in Carthage who believe that the Christian rule against kneeling on Sunday (as the day of resurrection) should apply also to the Sabbath (On Prayer 23.1–2), implying it, too, was a day of celebration.

McGowan, Andrew Brian, Ancient Christian worship : early church practices in social, historical, and theological perspective (2014)

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