Fiecare cu ce-l doare – uleiul lipsa al fecioarelor neintelepte

Citind evanghelia lectionarului la Matei 25:1-13  si cautand sa vad cum a fost interpretata lipsa uleiului din candele fecioarelor neintelepte, am avut o „revelatie” : fiecare interpreteaza si intelege in functie de durerea/ controversa/ sensibilitatea proprie. Astfel:

  • Sf. Ioan Gura de Aur: „Candela fără ulei reprezintă evlavia fără milostenie” citat de patriarhul Daniel.
  • Fer. Augustin – „charity” , milostenia, bunatatea, dragostea

What the Oil Signifies. Augustine: It is some great thing, some exceedingly great thing, that this oil signifies. Do you think it might be charity? If we try out this hypothesis, we hazard no precipitate judgment. I will tell you why charity seems to be signified by the oil. The apostle says, “I will show you a still more excellent way.”9 “If I speak with the tongue of mortals and of angels but do not have love, I am a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal.”10 This is charity. It is “that way above the rest,”11 which is with good reason signified by the oil. For oil swims above all liquids. Pour in water, and pour in oil upon it; the oil will swim above. Pour in oil, pour in water upon it; the oil will swim above. If you keep the usual order, it will be uppermost; if you change the order, it will be uppermost. “Charity never fails.”12 Sermon 93.4.13

9 9 1 Cor 12:31.

10 10 1 Cor 13:1.

11 11 That more excellent way.

12 12 1 Cor 13:8.

13 13 PL 38:575; NPNF 1 6:402 (Sermon 43).

Simonetti, M. (2002). Matthew 14-28. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture NT 1b. (216).

 

Iar untdelemnul înseamnă dragostea, care este întâistătătoarea virtuţilor. Aşa precum, dacă ai aşeza temeliile şi ai ridica zidurile, dar n-ai pune deasupra acoperişul, ai face cu totul nefolositoare întreaga zidire, tot aşa, dacă ai dobândit întreaga virtute, dar pe deasupra n-ai dobândi şi dragostea, toate celelalte virtuţi ar rămâne lipsite de preţ şi nefolositoare.

  • Epifanie Latinul : „the oil is compassion”. cf. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture NT 1b
  • Penticostalii (si adventistii prin E.G. White), prin tradiţie, au susţinut că este Duhul Sfânt.
  • Baptistii : Scriptura , zice Manu.
  • metodistii prin John Wesley : credinta care lucreza prin dragoste („A lamp and oil with it, is faith working by love.”) cf Wesley’s Notes on NT
  • facand referire la istoria interpretarii textului, un comentariu luteran spune :

However, the oil represents good works.89

89 E.g., in Cyril of Alexandria, frg. 280, 282 = Reuss, 250, 252; Methodius of Olympus Symposium 6.4 = 94; Jerome, 236; Caesarius of Arles De decem virginibus, PL 67.1161; Hilary 27.4–5 = SC 258.206, 208; Opus Imperfectum, 52 = 930; Thomas Aquinas Lectura no. 2017; Maldonat, 489–90.

  • un foarte elocvent comentariu este cel mai sus pomenit, via luterani:

5. Matt 25:1–13* in the confessional conflict. Following the Augustinian interpretation, the reformers almost universally understood the oil of the text as faith108 or as the Holy Spirit.109 Here the sense of the text was the opposite of that in the classic Catholic parenetic interpretation (3a* above). No longer is the important thing that faith without works is dead; here it is precisely the opposite—that works without faith are of no value before God. The verbal antithesis is sharp. For Maldonat the parable shows “that faith alone without good works is of no value for salvation.”110 Brenz on the other hand insists: “No matter what works you perform in order to earn atonement for your sins, they do not shine before God, because they do not have the oil of faith.”111 Especially the Protestant polemicists, following Augustine, took aim at the church’s mediation of salvation. To turn to “dealers” for the oil of faith is an absurdity. What the “priests and monks” [pfaffi & monachi] sell—masses for the dead, indulgences, “merits of the saints and I don’t know what all”112—is useless and vain. In reality the difference between the two interpretations was not so great. Even the Protestants had to say clearly what faith they were talking about. Many explained that they naturally were speaking of the faith that expresses itself in good works.113 Of course, here the classic Catholic interpretation is much closer to Matthew, who was concerned with obedience to the commandments of Jesus—the obedience in which the members of the church especially show that they are “awake.”

108 Luther 2.846 (sermon from 1522); Zwingli, 391; Bucer, 184.

109 Luther, sermon from 1537, WA 45.387; Brenz, 730; Cocceius, 39; Grotius 2.266.

110 489: “Solam fidem sine bonis operibus ad salutem non valere.”

111 Brenz, 731.

112 Bullinger, 218B (quotation); Zwingli, 392; Musculus, 529; Cocceius, 39 (quotation). Cyril of Alexandria (frg. 280 = Reuss, 251) and Hilary (27.5 = 208) already criticize here those who want to benefit from the merits of others.

113 Zwingli, 391 (“fides quae fomentum dat operibus”); Musculus, 528 (“fides bona opera gignit”); Bullinger, 218A (“fides est charitate efficax”); David Dickson, A Brief Exposition of the Evangel of Jesus Christ According to Matthew (1647; reprinted Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1981) 340 (“faith working by love”).

Luz, U., & Koester, H. (2005). Matthew 21-28: A commentary. Translation of: Das Evangelium nach Matthaus.; Vol. 3 translated by James E. Crouch ; edited by Helmut Koester.; Vol. 3 published by Fortress Press. (243). Minneapolis: Augsburg.

Se poate asadar lesne observa cum fiecare cam „trage focul pe turta lui” – fiecare cu ce-l doare , cum spuneam. Ce-i de invatat de aici? Ca prea adesea suntem conditionati in hermeneutica proprie sau denominationala de durerile si conflictele care ne rod si riscam sa-i punem in gura Domnului propriile noastre of-uri si shiboleturi.

In definitiv ce inseamna „uleiul lipsa” al fecioarelor neintelepte? Cel mai probabil acel „un singur lucru care iti mai lipseste” pe care i-l reprosa Dumnezeu tanarului bogat:

Privindu-l, Isus l-a iubit şi i-a zis: – Îţi lipseşte un singur lucru: du-te, vinde tot ce ai şi dă săracilor, şi vei avea astfel o comoară în cer. Apoi vino, urmează-Mă! (Marcu 10:21 NTR)

Fiecare stie, sau ar trebui sa stie, care ii este punctul vulnerabil , „calcaiul lui Ahile” , acel „singur lucru” unde riscul pentru el e major. Daca nu-l stie, sa-L roage pe Bunul Dumnezeu sa i-l descopere , si … i se va da.

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