Lecturi crestine la Vechiul Testament : painea si vinul lui Melchisedek


Melchisedek, regele Salemului, a adus pâine şi vin. Acesta era preot al Dumnezeului cel Preaînalt. (Geneza 14:18 NTR)

Tradiţia patristică va vedea în pâinea şi vinul oferite lui Avram imaginea însăşi a Euharistiei. Clement Alexandrinul a văzut în pâine şi vin o prefigurare a sacrificiului euharistic, iar Ciprian de Cartagina, considerând că este vorba aici de o adevărată jertfă, a văzut în gestul lui Melchisedec o prefigurare a Liturghiei. „Paine si vin”: pentru crestini, prefigurarea euharistiei (cf Danielou. 1958, pp. 196-201)
The bread and wine offered by Melchisedech were considered from a very ancient date to be a figure of the Eucharist. Clement of Alexandria already speaks of „Melchisedech, who offered bread and wine, the consecrated food as a figure (typos) of the Eucharist” ( Strom. IV, 25; Staehlin, 319, 25). This idea is developed by St. Cyprian. His Letter LXIII, addressed to Cecilius, is actually devoted to combating the heretics who rejected the use of wine in the Eucharist. Here, Cyprian enumerates the principal texts of the Old Testament in which wine is presented as a figure of the Eucharist. And among these passages, the most important is that concerning Melchisedech: „In Melchisedech the priest, we see the sacrament
of the sacrifice of the Lord prefigured according to the witness of Scripture; Melchisedech, king of Salem, offered bread and wine” ( Ep. LXIII, 4; C.S.E.L., 703).
Jean Danielou, Bible and the Liturgy
Cyprian: Likewise, in the priest Melchizedek, we see the sacrament of the sacrifice of the Lord prefigured according to what the divine Scripture testifies and says: “And Melchizedek, the king of Salem, brought out bread and wine, for he was a priest of the most high God, and he blessed Abraham.” But that Melchizedek portrayed a type of Christ, the Holy Spirit declares in the Psalms, saying in the person of the Father to the Son: “Before the day star … I have begotten you …. You are a priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.”2 The order proceeds first from the sacrifice and then descends to Melchizedek, a priest of the most high God, because he offered bread, because he blessed Abraham. For who is more a priest of the most high God than our Lord Jesus Christ, who offered sacrifice to God the Father and offered the very same thing that Melchizedek had offered, bread and wine, that is, actually, his body and blood? Letters 63.4.3

2 2Ps 110:4 (109:4 lxx).                       3 3FC 51:204*.

Sheridan, M. (2002). Genesis 12-50. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture OT 2. (26). Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press.

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